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陕西专升本英语八大时态用法详解
发布时间:2017-8-24 10:10:12

 

一般现在时

1. 概念:表示经常、反复发生的动作或行为及现在的某种状况。

2. 基本结构:

(1)主语+ be动词(is / am / are)+表语

(2)主语+ 行为动词的原形或单数第三人称形式+其他

否定形式:

(1)am / is /are + not;

(2)谓语动词若为行为动词,则在其前加don’t,如主语为第三人称单数,则用doesn’t,同时行为动词还原为原形。

3. 一般疑问句:

(1)把is / am / are动词放于句首;

(2)用助动词do提问,如主语为第三人称单数,则用does,同时还原行为动词。

4. 用法:

(1)表示经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频度的时间状语连用。

如:I leave home for school at 7 every morning.

(2)表示客观真理,客观存在或科学事实。

如:The earth moves around the sun.

(3)表示格言或警句。

如:Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。

注意:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。

如:Columbus proved that the earth is round.

(4)表示现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性等。

如:I don’t want so much.

     Ann writes good English but does not speak well.

(5)一般现在时表示将来含义

① come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return的一般现在时可以表示将来,主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。

如:The train leaves at six tomorrow morning.

    — When does the bus star?

    — It stars in ten minutes.

② 在时间或条件状语句中。

如:When Bill comes (不是will come), ask him to wait for me.

I’ll write to you as soon as I arrive there.


一般过去时

1. 概念:表示过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态;过去习惯性、经常性的动作或行为。

2. 基本结构:

(1)主语+ was / were +表语

(2)主语+ 行为动词的过去式 +其他

否定形式:

(1)was / were + not;

(2)在行为动词前加didn’t,同时还原行为动词。

一般疑问句:

(1)was或were放于句首;

(2)用助动词do的过去式did 提问,同时还原行为动词。

3. 用法:

(1)在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。

时间状语有:yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982等。

如:Where did you go just now?

(2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。

如:When I was a child, I often played football in the street.

注意:used to do sth“过去常常做某事”,表示过去习惯性的动作或状态,但如今已不存在。

如:Mother used not to be so forgetful. 妈妈过去没这么健忘。

 
现在进行时

1. 概念:表示现阶段或说话时正在进行的动作及行为。

2. 时间状语:now, at this time, these days等.

3. 基本结构:主语 + am / is /are + doing

否定形式:主语 + am / is / are + not + doing

一般疑问句:把be动词放于句首。

4. 用法:

(1)表示现在(指说话人说话时)正在发生的事情。

 如:We are waiting for you.

(2)表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行。

 如:Mr Green is writing another novel. (说话时并不一定在写小说)

(3)表示动作的渐变,这样的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin等。

 如:The leaves are turning red.

       It’s getting warmer and warmer.

(4)与always, constantly, forever 等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往带有说话人的主观色彩。

 如:You are always changing your mind. 你老是改变主意。

(5)用现在进行时表示将来

下列动词come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return等瞬间动词的现在进行时可以表示将来。

如:I’m leaving tomorrow.

 

过去进行时

1. 概念:表示过去某段时间或某一时刻正在发生或进行的行为或动作。

如:My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself.

2. 时间状语:at this time yesterday, at that time或以when引导的谓语动词是一般过去时的时间状语等。

3. 基本结构:主语 + was / were + doing

否定形式:主语 + was / were + not + doing

一般疑问句:把was或were放于句首。

4. 用法:

(1)过去进行时表示过去某段时间内持续进行的动作或者事情。

 如:We were watching TV from seven to nine last night.

(2)过去进行时可以表示在过去某个时间点发生的事情。时间点可以用介词短语、副词或从句来表示。

如:What was she doing at nine o’clock yesterday? (介词短语表示时间点)

       She was doing her homework then. (副词表示时间点)

      When I saw him he was decorating his room. (when从句表示时间点)

(3)在复合句中,如果主要动作和背景动作都是延续的或同时发生的,那么主从句的动词都可用过去进行时。

如:When he was waiting for the bus, he was reading a newspaper. (两个动作都是延续的)

He was cleaning his car while I was cooking. (两个动作同时进行或主句的动作发生在从句的动作过程中)

 

一般将来时

1. 概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。

2. 时间状语:tomorrow, next day (week, month, year), soon, in a few minutes, by the day after tomorrow等。

3. 基本结构:

(1)主语 + am / is / are / going to do sth;

(2)主语 + will do sth。

否定形式:

(1)主语 + am / is /are + not + going to do sth

(2)主语 + will not(won’t) do sth

一般疑问句:

(1)am / is / are放于句首;

(2)will置于句首。

4. will主要用于以下三个方面:

(1)表示主观意愿的将来。

如:They will go to visit the factory tomorrow.

(2)表示不以人的意志为转移的客观的将来。

如:Today is Saturday. Tomorrow will be Sunday.

      He will be thirty years old this time next year.

(3)表示临时决定,通常用于对话中。

— Mary has been ill for a week.

— Oh, I didn’t know. I will go and see her.

5. be going to主要用于以下两个方面:

(1)表示事先经过考虑、打算、计划要做某事。

如:Dad and I are going to watch an opera this afternoon.

今天下午我和爸爸打算去看歌剧。

(2)表示根据目前某种迹象判断,某事非常有可能发生,表示推测。

如:Look! There come the dark clouds. It is going to rain.

瞧!乌云密集。天要下雨了。

 

过去将来时

1. 概念:立足于过去某一时刻,从过去看将来,常用于宾语从句中。

2. 时间状语:the next day (morning, year), the following month (week)等。

3. 基本结构:

(1)主语 + was / were / going to do sth

(2)主语 + would do sth

否定形式:

(1)主语 + was / were / not + going to do sth

(2)主语 + would + not + do sth

一般疑问句:

(1)was或were放于句首;

(2)would 提到句首。

4. 用法:

(1)“would + 动词原形”常表示主观意愿的将来。

如:He said he would come to see me. 他说他要来看我。

(2)“was / were + going to + 动词原形”常表示按计划或安排即将发生的事。

如:She said she was going to start off at once.

 I was told that he was going to return home.

此结构还可表示根据某种迹象来看,很可能或即将发生的事情。

如:It seemed as if it was going to rain. 看来好像要下雨。

(3)come,go,leave,arrive,start等瞬时动词可用过去进行时表示过去将来的含义。

如:He said the train was leaving at six the next morning.

      She told me she was coming to see me.

 

现在完成时

1. 概念:过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,或从过去已经开始持续到现在并且有可能继续下去的动作或状态。

2. 时间状语:recently, lately, since, for, in the past few years等。

3. 基本结构:主语 + have / has + done +其他

否定形式:主语 + have / has + not +done +其他

一般疑问句:Have / Has +主语 + done +其他

4. since的三种用法:

(1) since +过去的一个时间点(如具体的年、月、日期、钟点、1980, last month, half past six)。

如:I have been here since 1989. 

(2) since +一段时间+ ago。

如:I have been here since five months ago.

(3)since +从句(一般过去时)。

如:Great changes have taken place since you left.

比较since和for

since 用来说明动作起始时间,for用来说明动作延续时间的长度。

如:We haven’t had any guests since we moved in here.

I have lived here for more than twenty years.

注意:并非有for 作为时间状语的句子都用现在完成时。

I worked here for more than twenty years. (我现在已不在这里工作。)

 

过去完成时

1. 概念:以过去某个时间为参照,在此以前发生的动作或行为,或在过去某动作之前已完成的动作,即“过去的过去”。

2. 时间状语:before, by the end of last year(term, month)等。

3. 基本结构:主语 + had done +其他

否定形式:主语 + hadn’t done +其他

一般疑问句:had置于句首。

4. 用法:

(1)用于told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句中。

如:She said (that) she had never been to Paris.

(2)在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先的动作用过去完成时;发生在后的动作用一般过去时。

如:When the police arrived, the thieves had run away.

(3)表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等用过去完成时表示“原本······,未能······”。

如:We had hoped that you would come, but you didn’t.

注意: had hardly… when ... 刚······就······。

如:I had hardly opened the door when he hit me. 我刚打开门,他就打了我。

had no sooner…than 刚······就······。

如:He had no sooner bought the car than he sold it. 他刚买了这辆车,转眼又卖了。

 

 

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